Paul's Reliance on Scripture in 1 Thessalonians
E. Elizabeth Johnson, Columbia Theological Seminary
Although Paul uses a good bit of what we recognize as biblical language and several phrases that seem to echo the Bible in 1 Thessalonians, nowhere does he quote scripture as he does in the Hauptbriefe. This essay seeks to understand how the scattered echoes and allusions to scripture in 1 Thessalonians demonstrate the shape of Paul's apocalyptic theology, whether or not those echoes and allusions would have been recognized by his Thessalonian listeners.
The Use of Scripture in Philippians: How Deep Should We Dig?
Stephen E. Fowl, Loyola College in Maryland
There are very few direct citations of Scripture in Philippians. Indeed, the use of Job 13:16 often passes unnoticed and Isa. 45:23 is incorporated into the so-called hymn of 2:6-11. At the same time an attentive reader can dig beneath the surface of Philippians to find a variety of Scriptural passages and themes lying beneath the surface. This raises a variety of interpretive questions about where and how deep one should dig and to what purpose. This paper will both display some of the Scriptural echoes in Philippians and examine how the excavation process might or might not shape interpretation of the epistle.
Writing "In the Image" of Scripture: The Form and Function of Allusions to Scripture in Colossians
Jerry L. Sumney, Lexington Theological Seminary
This paper will examine the mostly opaque allusions to Scripture that appear in Colossians. It will consider what such allusions, that the author never identifies as citations, may suggest about how the writer and readers might have prior knowledge of the citation and how these allusions function in the argument (and perhaps in the preformed material in which they appear). We will see what light this might shed on the knowledge and function of Scripture in the church the letter addresses.
God's Sure Foundation: "Paul's" Use of Scripture in 2 Timothy
Gordon D. Fee, Regent College
2 Timothy has relatively few direct references to Scripture, though still more than the two unquestioned letters of 1 Thessalonians and Philippians. This paper examines the various uses of Scripture in 2 Timothy, focusing on both the "what" and the "how" of this usage.